Economic Effect of Gambling in the US

Gambling is one of the American people’s favorite hobbies, and the topic has amazed me since I read the book Bringing Down the House in 5th grade. On a recent college visit to California, I was surprised to learn that one course available for completing the math requirement was called “The Probability of Gambling”, and was a study of the probability behind various card games, including Texas Hold ‘em and blackjack. Gambling is also a popular venue in the media, as can be seen in popular movies such as 21 and Casino Royal. When I was younger, the concept of earning money while playing a game that I enjoyed fascinated me, but as I grew older, I realized the naivety of those beliefs. Casinos wouldn’t offer gambling if patrons were consistently putting the casinos in debt. Now, I am more interested in the effect gambling has had on society, specifically on its economic impacts. I believe that gambling has been beneficial for the US economy in the past and will continue to benefit the economy for years to come, but the stress gambling puts on society has greatly increased problems in communities with high profile gambling industries.

Gambling in the Americas began when the first colonists came from England, and the Virginia Company needed a way to get some profit. They turned to a lottery, which was quite successful, except it was associated with settler’s laziness as well as the economic troubles faced by the colony. The Crown eventually shut down the lottery due to its impact on a royal lottery operated throughout the British Empire. Lotteries were used again by American colonists in an attempt to raise funds for the Revolutionary War without raising taxes. This was extremely successful, and the practice was continued into the 19th century in order to transportation improvements, especially as the Western frontier continued to gain attention and popularity. When gold was discovered in California, gambling became one of the most popular forms of entertainment for miners in the West. However, the economy slid into a recession after the gold rush, leading many people to associate gambling with economic depression. Lotteries were also becoming increasingly corrupt, with organizers fixing the results for a portion of the pot. These circumstances led to nationwide ban on gambling, with the exception being Nevada, where professional gamblers would flock to from across the country to create the foundation for modern day Las Vegas.

The ban on gambling didn’t last long, as the Great Depression forced government leaders to revoke the ban in an attempt to stimulate the faltering economy. Gambling once again grew in popularity, although it only increased the divide between the rich and the poor due to the uneven payoff associated with casino gambling. State lotteries became popular during the Cold War, especially when Reagan became president, because he cut national funding for key aspects of the country such as education and Medicare in order to fund the war against the USSR. Tribal gambling also began to grow in popularity during this time, due to state’s inability to regulate prize money on reservations. Instead of going to state run lotteries or gambling locations, locals and tourists alike would flock to the reservations in the hopes of winning it all, although this rarely ever occurred. These various aspects of gambling have steadily become more popular, with casinos and lotteries providing support for various state economies.

Gambling provides two main benefits to states: casinos bring in tourists while also paying tax to the state for gambling revenues. An influx of tourists means money flows into the state economy without any significant loss of money due to the low odds of winning at casinos. The state gets even more money from gambling because casinos are forced to pay a tax on all revenue earned, with tax revenue almost reaching $1 billion dollars in Nevada. The gambling industry has also created more than 500,000 jobs, lowering unemployment throughout the nation. However, gambling isn’t perfect, and there are other statistics that paint a much more worrisome picture about the industry.

Crime seems to be strongly correlated to gambling, with cities introducing casinos seeing an increase of over 50% in crime rates. This forces states to spend more on the police force, diverting funding away from other projects in an attempt to combat a problem caused by gambling. Organized crime is also a very common issue due to the large amount of cash flowing in and out of casinos each day. Problem gambling also becomes a much larger issue when casinos are present, which in turn leads to a higher crime rate when people need to pay off gambling debt. There are some detrimental aspects of gambling in society, but for the most part, the gambling industry has helped keep the American economy from slumping.

After reviewing the various statistics from my research, I believe that gambling has been beneficial for America. Whenever the country has faced economic hardship, gambling has been promoted or legalized to bolster a weak economy. Not only does it have a positive influence on the economy, but I believe that gambling also benefits the American people. Card games such as poker and blackjack are universal and can help bring people together in social environments. In a few short months, I will be able to legally experience the large attraction gambling has to a large number of Americans. Although there are some harmful side effects of gambling, these are outweighed by the benefit that the industry has displayed throughout history.

Staying on Top of the Game: Localisation Mistakes to Avoid

There’s no denying that video games have become an integral part of the millennial life. This is probably because they allow the gamer to lead an alternate life, full of adventure and challenges. Gaming is a truly global industry today- a $60 billion one.

In 2010, a video game distributor in Brazil revealed that a game localized into Portuguese multiplied its sales 15 times! This underlines the importance of video game localization: it also underlines the need for quality translation and localization.

In spite of the importance of game localization, companies make the mistake of opting for shoddy shortcuts which are costly to repair, bring bad publicity, and hurt sales.

What are the localization mistakes that gaming companies make?

#1. Cutting corners on translation
Many video game companies think that they have saved a buck by going in for machine translations or considering the cheapest translation option rather than the best.

Machines are the world away from producing the accuracy needed. Translation tools can also be a security threat by providing access to video game content to hackers via the Internet.

Also, anything that is typed in for translation is literally handed over to the translation tool provider: it becomes their data; they can do anything they want to with it.
Translation needs not just to be accurate, but retain the flavor and nuances of the original to breathe life into the translated version.

Mistranslation can make the game a frustrating experience for the player or make the game developer a laughing stock of the gaming world; in the worst -case scenario, it can land the developer into a legal soup.

Cutting corners on translation add to the work and the expense. The sensible thing would be to make the use of professional translation services which are not just competent and creative, but discreet as well. Making the translation agency sign a non-disclosure agreement can help the game developer relax while the localization is going on safely in expert hands.

#2. Hard coding text into core files
This is something that video game developers with limited vision do. It is a mistake to embed text elements like the menu text, game’s title, and on-screen, printed dialogue into core game files. If the text is stored in a separate resource file, it will be easy to incorporate a translated version by adding a new variable and providing the translation in a separate dedicated file. Much easier than digging through source code while translation?

#3. Painting all game text with the same brush
Some games involve specialized terminology. Take sports games; football terminology is not the same as basketball-tall talk. Translators and localisers for such games need to do some research. The need here is for “research-oriented text.”

Games like the popular and addictive Candy Crush come up with new gaming concepts. Such games are slotted as needing “creative-oriented text.”

Game developers should analyze their game content and decide which category of text is suitable. Text should be tailor-made to content, and the portfolio of the translator should match this need.

#4. Out-of-context game localization
Surely, there is little to be gained by handing over reams of text to translators and localisers who know little about the game or its content. Worse still, is expecting someone who has no idea about gaming to handle the job!

When game localization is of such importance, the more the translator knows about the game, the better will be the outcome. Translators should be encouraged to play the game being developed. Discretion and security are non-negotiable requirements, of course.

#5. Ignoring Cultural Factors
Each market is steeped in its own culture. Cultural sensitivity is necessary while localizing a game or the developer will risk alienating target audiences. This isn’t just about actual game content like the story, characters, situations, and events.

Consider the following:
A gaming giant had to recall 75,000 copies of a video game which used the chanting of the Quran in its soundtrack after a user raised objections to it.
The depiction of Japanese armies invading South Korea may be a slice of history; nevertheless, Seoul was offended by a game that showed just that.

Localization misdemeanors can range from showing alcohol to displaying blood and gore on screen. While localizing, video game developers will do themselves a favor by doing a thorough recce of the target market. Cultural gaffes are not to be taken lightly, and the adverse publicity surrounding them can kill the game if not the developing company.

#6. Failing to test game translations
The proof of the pudding is in the eating!
Translation does tend to change the length of the sentence. Translated strings may not fit the graphics or the elements of user interface. Coding may also leave some strings missing. All this can be avoided if developers test-drive their games on an actual device.

On-device localization testing can let you assess the overall quality of game localization while identifying the glitches at the same time. If the game has on-screen printed dialogue, autofitting the text to fit the text space is necessary.

#7. Poor management of translation content
Game developers must organize all the different formats and files – marketing copy, manual, packaging, app store descriptions, in-game interface text, and subtitles. The management of translations must be centralized to avoid mistranslations and duplications across the various types of content.

#8. Treating localization as an afterthought
Thinking of localization as the very last step in the development cycle is a costly mistake that many game developers make and land up missing great overseas opportunities. When copycat versions arrive in the local market, such companies find that they have painted themselves into a corner. It is only then that they think of finding fresh markets overseas. Localization at this “end” stage means reworking source code and building up translation materials from scratch: all of which cost time and money.

The solution is to wrap strings in the initial stages of video game development and to adopt coding styles of international standards.

There are many gamers overseas. The video game market is an ever-growing one. Professional and talented translation services can go a long way in perfecting video game localization.

Fortnite Basics

Fortnite is the name of a hit new game that was released back in September of 2017. When it was first released there was very little hype about it and did not receive much attention at its initial release. Due to that simple fact, the company that created it decided to offer a portion of the game for free and since the game has become probably the most popular in the world now. There are many aspects that make the game unique.

First off, it is a third person shooter but very animated in its positioning so not very serious in a manner of terms. Along with being a shooter game you are able to harvest materials such as wood, brick and metal and craft different building structures like ramps, walls, floors, and really anything imaginable. The point of the game is to be the last player or squad standing. The game starts out with one hundred players all dropping in from a school bus held in the air by a hot air balloon to a giant island with different little towns and places marked on the map. Each person drops off of the bus and once they land they loot for weapons and shield before someone else finds the loot first. There are many different types of weapons like shotguns, rifles, rocket launchers and many other different weaponry to find. Players open up golden chests that give you multiple items usable in game like potions and weapons as mentioned above. Once a player has the loot they want they must move into the storm circle as the outside storm closes in slowly and forces players together. The storm will slowly decrease your health if you are caught in it till eventually your health runs out. Once your health runs out there is no respawning into the same game as you must start over from the beginning.

The ultimate goal is to be the last one standing and achieve a “Victory Royale”. It is a difficult feat as there are many highly skilled players out there that play and compete viciously on a regular basis. The key that has been found by most of these highly skilled gamers is to be able to build more efficiently and quickly in the heat of a gun fight. These builders are usually the most skilled of players and tend to win more of the games they play. Inexperienced players that are still learning the overall flow of the game do not usually find their first win till many games played. As time has gone on the developers of the game have added special limited time game modes to the mix as well to keep the game interesting and their die-hard players entertained and not becoming bored after so long. The mode that has become a favorite of many is the high explosive mode which takes away all normal weapons and leaves players wandering around the map finding grenade launchers and rocket launchers and a few other specialty weapons to win the game with. These additional modes provide a skill change and allow newer players to become more accustomed to items that are less prevalent in the normal mode and allows them to experiment more freely so they are not unprepared in the regular mode.